The questionnaire submitted to the company is below, partially pre-filled on the base on the information collected by the OpenCorporation staff.

SOFIDEL - SOCIETA' PER AZIONI did not fill the questionnaire.

Registry

1. Business name

SOFIDEL - SOCIETA' PER AZIONI

2. Report submitted by the company management or trade union / employee representatives

No

3. Role in TNC

  • KeyRole - Chairman
  • KeyRole - CEO
  • KeyRole - Human Resources
  • KeyRole - CSR
  • KeyRole - Industrial relations
  • KeyRole - Communication Public Relations
  • EWC/Trade Union/Worker Representative
  • Other

4. Global Ultimate Ownership (GUO)

-

5. Country (GUO)

-

6. Parent company

-

7. Legal form

  • Limited liability company with share capital divided into units
  • Limited liability company
  • Listed liability company with share capital divided into units

8. Is it an SE (Societas Europaea)?

No answer

9. LEI (Legal Entity Identifier)

8156004E70AB6119D319

10. BVD Code

IT01256000462

11. National ID

LU0128332

12. Trade Register Number

LU0128332

13. VAT

01256000462

14. European VAT

-

15. Legal residence

Italy

16. Number of shareholders

> 15%

-

17. Information on major shareholders

-

18. Number of subsidiaries

-

19. City

PORCARI

20. Country

Italy

21. Website

www.sofidel.it

22. ISO Country code

IT

23. Main stock exchange of reference

-

24. ISIN number

-

25. Ticker symbol

-

26. Declarations and treaties recognised by the country where it has its registered office

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

-

European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)

-

Charter of Fundamental Rights of CDFL Workers (Strasbourg Charter 1989)

-

Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union EU CFR (Nice Charter 2000)

-

Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union TFEU

-

Registered office in an OECD country

-

ILO C029 - Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29)

-

ILO C087 - Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention, 1948 (No. 87)

-

ILO C098 - Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949 (No. 98)

-

ILO C100 - Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951 (No. 100)

-

ILO C105 - Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 (No. 105)

-

ILO C111 - Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958 (No. 111)

-

ILO C138 - Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138)

-

ILO C182 - Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182)

-

Governance

27. Number of members of the Board of Directors (BoD)

-

28. Number of independent directors in the BoD

Indipendent directors: by “independent” we mean members that are not employed by the multinational company, don’t receive a significant payment by the company and are not linked with the various Directors/executives in the company

-

29. Number of women in the CDA

-

30. Duality of the CEO (Chief Executive Officer)

He's defined as dual when performing a role of “safeguard and control” in addition to one of “administrative management”

-

31. How is Governance composed?

  • Doesn't answer
  • Board of Directors
  • Board of Directors and supervisory board
  • Board of directors plus supervisory board with presence of workers
  • Board of Directors plus Board of Statutory Auditors
  • Board of directors plus audit with external professionals

32. Total remuneration of the CEO

in Euro

n.a.

33. Compensatory remuneration of CEO

in Euro

-

34. Date of remuneration

-

35. Is the CEO's remuneration also linked to the environmental and social dimension?

-

36. Management

Current number of Directors and Managers

-

Name of the current Chief Executive Officer

Mr Luigi Lazzareschi

Gender

M

Date of birth

13/02/1963

Country

Italy

Professional profile of the Chief Executive Officer

Deputy Member of the Board

Sanctions to the Chief Executive Officer

No

Number of companies where the CEO has a role

18

Sector Employment

37. Economic activities

Primary NACE code

4676

Description of primary NACE code

Wholesale of other intermediate products

Secondary NACE code

-

Description of secondary NACE code

-

Brief description of activity

This company, based in Italy, is engaged in the manufacture and market of tissue paper for hygienic and domestic use. It was founded by Emi Stefani and Giuseppe Lazzareschi in 1966 and has registered headquarters located in Porcari. The company's mission is making everyday life tidier, cleaner, safer, more practical and pleasant by investing in people and innovation and promoting conduct based on sustainability, commercial transparency and respect for regulations. It offers toilet papers, kitchen papers, paper napkins, paper handkerchiefs, tissues, eco-friendly toilet papers, and thirst pocket kitchen paper rolls. The company also provides products for the specific requirements of cafés, restaurants, bars, spas, fitness centers, communities, hotels, and other types of consumption. In addition, it offers jumbo rolls for processing companies. Further, the company provides private label products for supermarkets.

38. Employed by country (last year)

Austria-Total employed

-

Belgium - Total employed

-

Bulgaria-Total employed

-

Cyprus-Total employed

-

Croatia-Total employed

-

Denmark-Total employed

-

Estonia-Total employed

-

Finland-Total employed

-

France-Total employed

-

Germany-Total employed

-

Greece-Total employed

-

Ireland-Total employed

-

Italy-Total employed

-

Latvia-Total employed

-

Lithuania-Total employed

-

Luxembourg-total employed

-

Malta-Total employed

-

Netherlands-Total employed

-

Poland-total employed

-

Portugal-Total employed

-

United Kingdom-Total employed

-

Czech Republic - Total employed

-

Romania-Total employed

-

Slovakia-Total employed

-

Slovenia-Total employed

-

Spain-Total employed

-

Sweden-Total employed

-

Hungary-Total employed

-

39. Global employment

Workers [2018]

n.a.

Workers [2017]

6116

Workers [2016]

5747

Workers [2015]

5380

40. Female employment world (in % of total world)

Workers (t)

-

Workers (t-1)

-

Workers (t-2)

-

Workers (t-3)

-

Social Dialogue

41. With respect to GUFs you have experiences of practices of:

Global Union Federations: http://www.global­unions.org/­about­us­.html

Social dialogue

-

Rights of information and consultation of employees or their representatives

-

Employee participation

-

GFA Global Framework Agreement

-

42. Compared to ETUFs you have experiences of practices:

European Trade Union Federations: https://www.etuc.org/european-trade-union-federations-10-list-members

Social dialogue

-

Rights of information and consultation of employees or their representatives

-

Employee participation

-

Collective bargaining

-

43. Are there any restrictions on trade union freedom in the country where the company has its registered office?

https://survey.ituc-csi.org/?lang=en

-

44. Which directives are applied in the company offices in EU 27?

Directive 80/987/EEC

Yes

Directive 89/391/EEC

Yes

Directive 98/59/EC

Yes

Directive 2000/43/EC

Yes

Directive 2000/78/EC

Yes

Directive 2001/23/EC

Yes

Council Directive 2001/86/EC

Yes

Directive 2002/14/EC

Yes

Directive 2002/73/EC

Yes

Council Directive 2003/72/EC

Yes

Directive 2005/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council

Yes

Directive 2009/38/EC

Yes

Directive 2004/25/EC

Yes

Directive 2011/35/EU

Yes

45. Is the Company a member of an employers' organisation?

-

46. Collective agreements applied

Global agreement (GFA)

No

Transnational agreements (TNCAs)

No

Transnational agreements by sector (e.g. Bangladesh Accord) or by company (e.g. Global works councils)

No

Agreement to set up the EWC or a representative body in the case of Societas Europaea

Yes

Joint statements

-

Collective labour agreement in all countries in which it operates

-

Company or supplementary collective labour agreement

-

47. In case of an agreement establishing Cae or a representative body in case of Societas Europaea (SE)

The text of the Agreement shall be made public

No

Was the Agreement signed by a European Federation (ETUF) or affiliates?

-

48. Insert Link to CAE Agreement if available

-

49. In the case of Transnational Agreements

The text of the Agreement shall be made public

-

The Agreement was signed by a World Trade Union Federation (GUFs) or affiliates

-

50. What information and consultation bodies exist in EU 27?

National information and consultation bodies under Directive 2002/14

-

National trade union information and consultation bodies under Directive 2002/14

-

Workers' health and safety representative within the meaning of Directive 89/391

-

Workers' representatives within the meaning of Directives 98/59 on collective redundancies and 2001/23 on the transfer of undertakings

-

Social Responsibility

51. Do you apply GRI Global Reporting Initiative Standards?

  • Non-response
  • No
  • Yes, GRI - G4
  • Yes, GRI standards
  • Citing_GRI

52. Please indicate here the link to the database on GRI Reporting

-

53. Do you publish your Social Responsibility Report

-

54. Do you publish the Integrated Report?

No answer

55. Applied ISO standards

ISO 9000 - Quality Management (from 9001 to 9004)

-

ISO 14000 - Environmental Management

-

ISO 26000 - Social responsibility

No answer

ISO 50001 - Energy Management

-

ISO 22000 - Food safety management

-

ISO 20121 - Sustainable events

-

ISO 37001 - Anti-bribery management systems

-

ISO 45001 - Occupational health and safety

-

ISO 20400 - Sustainable Procurement

-

56. Other applied standards

Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS)

-

Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)

-

MCERTS (Environment Agency's Monitoring Certification Scheme)

-

Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP)

No answer

57. Social certifications and other CSR standards applied

SA8000 Social Accountability

No answer

ILO Tripartite Declaration of Principles concerning Multinational Enterprises and Social Policy

-

OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises

Yes

OECD Principles for Corporate Governance

-

58. Do you adopt Global Compact?

Yes

59. Do you adopt SDGs (Social Development Goals)

No answer

60. Do you apply Directive 95/2014 on the disclosure of non-financial information?

-

61. If you adopt OECD guidelines, have you submitted applications to the national contact points?

-

62. If you do not adopt the GRI standards but have prepared a social report, what are the topics regulated?

Transparency

-

Relations with suppliers

-

Relations with staff

-

Relations with the public

-

Reducing environmental risks

-

Moral and sexual harassment

-

63. If you do not adopt the GRI standards but have prepared a social report, which actors/stakeholders are involved?

Trade union organisations

-

Local government

-

Consumer associations

-

Workers' representatives

-

NGO

-

Civil society representatives

-

64. CSR/ESG policies are also applied to:

Domestic transactions

-

International transactions

-

Supply chain and outsourcing

-

Distribution

-

Franchising

-

After sales assistance

-

65. What are the tools used to verify compliance with CSR/ESG policies along the supply chain?

  • Non-response
  • None
  • External Audit
  • Internal control

66. Do you adopt or promote whistleblowing practices?

-

67. If so, which ones?

-

68. Participation in rankings

  • Global 100 Most Sustainable Corporations
  • Global CSR RepTrak 100
  • BrandZ Top 100 Most Valuable US Brands
  • The World's Best Multinational Workplaces
  • The Gartner Supply Chain Top 25
  • The World's Most Innovative Companies
  • The DiversityInc Top 50 Companies
  • Best Global Websites
  • Green Ranking Global Top 500
  • Green Ranking Global Top 100

69. RepRisk indicators

Indicator that measures the exposure of multinationals to the risk of environmental, social and governance impact (ESG risks)

RepRisk indicator (last month)

24

Peak RepRisk Indicator (Last 2 years)

26

% RepRisk Environment

-

% Social RepRisk

-

RepRisk Governance %

-

Job Conditions

70. Do you have a training policy?

-

71. Average number of training/employing hours in last year

-

72. Do you apply skills management and lifelong learning programmes for the ongoing employability of employees?

-

73. Do you have a policy to protect the right to health and safety in the workplace where the company operates?

-

74. Do you have e a policy to protect the right to health and safety in the workplace in the supply chain?

-

75. Total number of accidents (latest available year)

-

76. Number of fatalities (latest available year)

-

77. Do you carry out the assessment of psychosocial risks and work-related stress?

-

78. Recognition of business benefits

Supplementary pension plans

-

Health/additional health

-

Insurance for employees and families

-

Training and support for mobility

-

Hourly/work flexibility

-

Loans/loan repayments

-

Equal opportunities

-

Parental support

-

Reconciling life and work

-

Possibility of bringing children to work in case of need

-

Grant/Refund for registration at the Fitness Centres/Open Sports Facilities

-

Contribution to transport costs incurred by employees

-

Incentive for non-polluting means of transport

-

Corporate Car

-

PC/laptop/telephone

-

Measures to combat poverty or social exclusion

-

Welfare extended to the territory

-

Finance

79. Is the financial statements/consolidated published?

-

80. If so, with what level of detail?

  • Non-response
  • Reclassification item
  • Reclassification detail
  • Detail detailing financial investments and participations

81. Check, supplement or supply quantitative data on (data in euro, thousand)

Total assets [2018]

0

Total assets [2017]

2.509.379

Total assets [2016]

2.043.417

Total assets [2015]

1.890.372

Equity capital [2018]

0

Equity capital [2017]

718.677

Equity capital [2016]

738.041

Equity capital [2015]

715.597

Revenues (Net Sales) [2018]

0

Revenues (Net Sales) [2017]

1.844.297

Revenues (Net Sales) [2016]

1.842.467

Revenues (Net Sales) [2015]

1.809.418

Cost of production [2018]

0

Cost of production [2017]

0

Cost of production [2016]

0

Cost of production [2015]

0

labour costs [2018]

0

labour costs [2017]

288.049

labour costs [2016]

279.967

labour costs [2015]

257.736

Other operating expenses [2018]

0

Other operating expenses [2017]

0

Other operating expenses [2016]

0

Other operating expenses [2015]

0

Gross profit [2018]

0

Gross profit [2017]

0

Gross profit [2016]

0

Gross profit [2015]

0

R&D Research & Development [2018]

0

R&D Research & Development [2017]

0

R&D Research & Development [2016]

0

R&D Research & Development [2015]

0

Cash Flow [2018]

0

Cash Flow [2017]

153.024

Cash Flow [2016]

200.621

Cash Flow [2015]

177.138

Added value [2018]

0

Added value [2017]

461.587

Added value [2016]

513.983

Added value [2015]

465.414

Gross operating margin (Ebitda) [2018]

0

Gross operating margin (Ebitda) [2017]

177.766

Gross operating margin (Ebitda) [2016]

232.882

Gross operating margin (Ebitda) [2015]

203.139

Amortization, depreciation and write-downs [2018]

0

Amortization, depreciation and write-downs [2017]

123.336

Amortization, depreciation and write-downs [2016]

117.506

Amortization, depreciation and write-downs [2015]

113.524

Operating result (EBIT) [2018]

0

Operating result (EBIT) [2017]

54.430

Operating result (EBIT) [2016]

115.376

Operating result (EBIT) [2015]

89.615

Interests [2018]

0

Interests [2017]

7.193

Interests [2016]

11.281

Interests [2015]

9.570

extraordinary items [2018]

0

extraordinary items [2017]

0

extraordinary items [2016]

1.567

extraordinary items [2015]

2.166

Pre-tax result [2018]

0

Pre-tax result [2017]

43.009

Pre-tax result [2016]

103.662

Pre-tax result [2015]

82.418

Taxes [2018]

0

Taxes [2017]

13.321

Taxes [2016]

22.114

Taxes [2015]

20.970

Fiinancial P/L [2018]

0

Fiinancial P/L [2017]

-11.421

Fiinancial P/L [2016]

-11.714

Fiinancial P/L [2015]

-7.197

Financial revenue [2018]

0

Financial revenue [2017]

797

Financial revenue [2016]

145

Financial revenue [2015]

756

Financial expenses [2018]

0

Financial expenses [2017]

12.218

Financial expenses [2016]

11.859

Financial expenses [2015]

7.953

Net income (Net Income) [2018]

0

Net income (Net Income) [2017]

29.688

Net income (Net Income) [2016]

81.548

Net income (Net Income) [2015]

61.448

82. On which criteria is the financial investment policy based?

  • Doesn't answer
  • Assessment based on performance only
  • Risk-based assessment
  • Assessment based on an internal responsibility code
  • Assessment based on parameters of social and environmental impact
  • Assessment with certification of ethical rating agencies

83. Which tax optimisation actions do you adopt?

  • Doesn't answer
  • None
  • Allocation of profits generated by companies to the jurisdiction with the lowest tax rate
  • Transfer pricing regulation (as provided for in the OECD guidelines)
  • Unbound on deductibility of payments made to a country with facilitated taxation
  • Non-imposition of withholding tax on transfers of money to countries with facilitated taxation
  • Non-introduction of exit taxation from tax havens, to be applied when liquidity is transferred from a country with facilitated taxation to highly taxed countries
  • Promotion of voluntary disclosure initiatives to highlight assets held in countries with reduced taxation

84. Do you promote charity actions/activities/initiatives?

-

85. If yes, enter URLs or list the target activitys/associations

-

86. Financial indicators

Profit per employee (th) [2018]

0

Profit per employee (th) [2017]

7,032

Profit per employee (th) [2016]

18,038

Profit per employee (th) [2015]

15,319

Operating revenue per employee (th) [2018]

0

Operating revenue per employee (th) [2017]

305,511

Operating revenue per employee (th) [2016]

325,346

Operating revenue per employee (th) [2015]

341,703

Costs of employees / Operating revenue (%) [2018]

n.a.

Costs of employees / Operating revenue (%) [2017]

15.416

Costs of employees / Operating revenue (%) [2016]

14.973

Costs of employees / Operating revenue (%) [2015]

14.02

Average cost of employee (th) [2018]

0

Average cost of employee (th) [2017]

47,098

Average cost of employee (th) [2016]

48,715

Average cost of employee (th) [2015]

47,906

Shareholders' funds for employees (th) [2018]

0

Shareholders' funds for employees (th) [2017]

117,508

Shareholders' funds for employees (th) [2016]

128,422

Shareholders' funds for employees (th) [2015]

133,011

Working capital for employees (th) [2018]

0

Working capital for employees (th) [2017]

-10,835

Working capital for employees (th) [2016]

13,67

Working capital for employees (th) [2015]

28,158

Total assets per employee (th) [2018]

0

Total assets per employee (th) [2017]

410,297

Total assets per employee (th) [2016]

355,562

Total assets per employee (th) [2015]

351,37

ROE using P/L before tax (%) [2018]

n.a.

ROE using P/L before tax (%) [2017]

5.984

ROE using P/L before tax (%) [2016]

14.046

ROE using P/L before tax (%) [2015]

11.517

ROCE using P/L before tax (%) [2018]

n.a.

ROCE using P/L before tax (%) [2017]

2.833

ROCE using P/L before tax (%) [2016]

8.511

ROCE using P/L before tax (%) [2015]

8.365

ROA using P/L before tax (%) [2018]

n.a.

ROA using P/L before tax (%) [2017]

1.714

ROA using P/L before tax (%) [2016]

5.073

ROA using P/L before tax (%) [2015]

4.36

ROE using Net income (%) [2018]

n.a.

ROE using Net income (%) [2017]

4.131

ROE using Net income (%) [2016]

11.262

ROE using Net income (%) [2015]

8.89

ROCE using Net income (%) [2018]

n.a.

ROCE using Net income (%) [2017]

2.081

ROCE using Net income (%) [2016]

6.99

ROCE using Net income (%) [2015]

6.655

ROA using Net income (%) [2018]

n.a.

ROA using Net income (%) [2017]

1.183

ROA using Net income (%) [2016]

4.067

ROA using Net income (%) [2015]

3.365

Diversity

87. Do you have a diversity policy in place?

-

88. Have measures been taken to support the maternity and parenthood of workers?

Company nurseries

-

Playroom inside the company

-

Agreements with kindergartens/libraries in the vicinity of the company

-

Summer centres

-

Financial contributions for home and/or day-care babysitters

-

Reversible part time

-

Teleworking

-

Work at home

-

Time bank

-

Flexible time in or out

-

Flexibility on shifts

-

Concentrated timetable

-

Employment support upon return from maternity leave or parental leave

-

Training for reintegration after maternity or parental leave

-

89. Has the gender budget been adopted?

-

90. What specific measures should be taken to promote female employment and career development?

Training courses for the acquisition of specific skills intended solely for female workers

-

Training initiatives in sectors and levels where women are underrepresented

-

Encouraging applications from women for senior posts

-

Change in work organisation to facilitate the reconciliation of living and working time

-

Preference in recruitment of the candidate in case of equal merit with the male candidate

-

Monitoring of recruitment and career advancement of women

-

Study of the situations, levels and sectors in which pay differentials occur

-

Training courses/seminars on equality and equal opportunities for managers and employees

-

91. Bodies/Committees for Equal Opportunities in the Company

-

92. If Yes, with an expense budget funded by the employer?

-

93. What measures do you adopt to include workers with a difference of racial or ethnic origin and/or for the promotion of religious beliefs?

Change in work organisation

-

Granting of permits

-

Flexible time in or out

-

Flexibility on shifts

-

Concentrated timetable

-

94. Use of child labour

-

95. Measures to combat child labour

Not contracted with suppliers using child labor

-

Involves third party entities to monitor the phenomenon

-

Requires its suppliers to terminate their contractual relationships with any subcontractors who use child labor

-

Termination of contractual relationships with suppliers using subcontractors employing minors

-

96. What measures do you adopt for spreading a culture of differences and human rights

Training Courses/Internal Company Seminars

-

Funding of participation in training courses/seminars

-

Promotion and/or support of awareness campaigns

-

97. Judicial sentences in cases of discrimination and/or harassment in the last 5 years?

Discrimination/gender harassment or sexual orientation

-

Discrimination/harassment by age or disability

-

Discrimination/harassment by race or ethnic origin

-

Discrimination/harassment on the grounds of religion or belief

-

98. Judicial convictions for trade union reasons in the last 5 years?

-

99. What specific measures do you provide for the protection of the health and safety of female workers and in relation to age and origin from other countries?

Provision of gender-differentiated protection measures

-

Provision of age-differentiated protection measures

-

Inclusion in risk assessment

-

Training and supervision in relation to age

-

Training and supervision in relation to provenance

-

100. Do you involve workers' representatives in the adoption of measures on the theme of diversity?

-

Accessibility

101. Do you have a web accessibility policy?

-

102. Enter URL of the page on the web policy

-

103. Web site accessibility, what actions have you applied

Insertion of Tag Title and Alt in media and hypertext content (for the blind)

-

Use of correct fonts: Georgia, Times New Roman, San Serif, Verdana

-

Backgrounds with contrasting color and text

-

Character magnification with "3 A" positioning in the top right corner

-

Readable website adaptable to all new devices, from smartphones to tablets

-

104. Do you have a specific policy of job placement of people with disabilities?

-

105. If Yes, which ones?

Abatement of architectural barriers for disabled motors in every room of the 'company for full use and access to every single service

-

Dismantling of barriers for sensory disabled with tactile paths, sound signal floors, paths to the floors

-

Supply of food suitable for different food needs, including ethnic and religious ones (e.g. intolerances or allergies, celiac disease, kosher, halal, vegetarian, vegan)

-

Adoption of smart working (1) for temporary disabilities (2)

-

106. If Yes, for what type of disability?

People with motor disabilities

-

People with sensory disabilities

-

107. Do you adopt training/updating programmes for disabled workers?

-

108. If Yes, how?

With qualified staff on the various disabilities with the peer-to-peer principle

-

With external experts

-

With refresher courses and information to all employees

-

109. Does your company have a policy of accessibility, work facilitation, IT tools?

-

110. If Yes for what kind of disability?

People with motor disabilities

-

People with sensory disabilities

-

111. Do you involve workers' representatives in the adoption of measures on accessibility for people with disabilities

-

112. For company meetings/meetings, what accessibility policies are in place?

Abatement of architectural barriers for disabled motors in every room of the 'company for full use and access to every single service

-

Dismantling of barriers for sensory disabled with tactile paths, sound signal floors, paths to the floors

-

Supply of food suitable for different food needs (intolerances or allergies, celiac disease, kosher, halal, vegetarian, vegan)

-

Adoption of smart working (1) for temporary disabilities (2)

-

Environment

113. Do you have an environmental policy?

-

114. How often are monitoring reports published?

  • Non-response
  • Occasional
  • Biannual
  • Yearly

115. Involvement in environmental risk management policies

Unilaterally

-

With the workers' representatives

-

With its main suppliers/customers

-

With administrations and civil society directly or indirectly involved

-

116. Is there significant progress in the company's environmental performance?

-

117. Environmental risk management policy applied in all the locations in which the company operates

-

118. Do you adopt a Green Public Procurement system for suppliers?

-

119. Do you adopt measures to monitor and reduce environmental risk?

-

120. Do you carry out Life cycle assessment analysis?

-

121. Do you adopt measures for circular economy and efficient use of materials?

-

122. Do you use eco-design and design for the recovery of materials at the end of their life?

-

123. Convictions at all levels for environmental offences over the last 5 years?

-